The following information is presented for educational purposes only. Medical Marijuana Inc. provides this information to provide an understanding of the potential applications of cannabidiol. Links to third party websites do not constitute an endorsement of these organizations by Medical Marijuana Inc. and none should be inferred.
A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that can potentially be cancerous. Studies have shown cannabis has antitumor effects and can limit tumor growth and encourage cancer cell death.
Overview of Tumors
A tumor is an abnormal mass of body tissue. They can be cancerous or noncancerous. Tumors develop as a result of cells dividing and growing excessively. Cell growth and division is normal, and typically the body manages the creation of new cells to replace older or damaged ones. When proper cell growth and death is disturbed, however, a tumor can result.
The underlying cause of a tumor can be related to a problem with the body’s immune system. Drinking too much alcohol, exposure to environmental toxins, excessive sunlight exposure, genetic problems, obesity, radiation exposure and viruses are also risk factors of cancerous tumors.
The symptoms associated with tumors depend on the tumor’s type and location. Tumors located in the colon, for example, can cause diarrhea, constipation, weight loss, blood in the stool, and iron deficiency anemia. Lung tumors can cause coughing, chest pain and shortness of breath. Other symptoms of tumors can include chills, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, malaise, night sweats and weight loss. Some tumors, however, may not cause any symptoms until they’re at an advanced stage.
Once a tumor is discovered, a biopsy is used to determine whether the tumor is noncancerous or cancerous. If the tumor is noncancerous, treatment may not be necessary but they may be removed for cosmetic reasons. Cancerous tumors, however, must be treated. Possible treatments include chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, biological therapy and targeted cancer therapy.
Findings: Effects of Cannabis on Tumors
Research has shown that cannabis can help inhibit the growth of, and even kill the cells of, cancerous tumors. Major cannabinoids found in cannabis have shown to inhibit the progression of cancers, and in some cases even kill cancerous cells, in preclinical and animal studies18,22,29,34,39.
Cannabis can also help patients manage the symptoms associated with cancerous tumor treatments, such as nausea and pain5. Cannabinoids have shown to help treat even the more difficult to control bouts of nausea and prevent anticipatory nausea in patients undergoing chemotherapy27. One study found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound found in cannabis, reduced conditioned rejection and chemotherapy-induced nausea28.
Cannabis has also been shown effective at lowering neuropathic pain that traditional treatment methods were unable to manage54.
While weight loss due to nausea and a loss of appetite are common side effects of tumor treatment. THC, has shown to stimulate appetite in patients that have cachexia related to cancer, reducing the risk of unsafe weight loss25. In addition, patients treated with THC have shown to have a larger appetite and report that food “tastes better”44.
States That Have Approved Medical Marijuana for Tumors
While no states have approved medical marijuana specifically for tumors, nearly all states with medical marijuana programs have approved medical marijuana for the treatment of cancer. These states include: Alaska, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia.
Although the state of Maryland hasn’t approved medical marijuana to treat tumors or cancer, it has approved it for the treatment of nausea and chronic pain, which are two symptoms commonly associated with cancer treatment. In addition, in Washington D.C., any condition can be approved for medical marijuana as long as a DC-licensed physician recommends the treatment.
Recent Studies on Cannabis’ Effect on Tumors
- Benz, A. H., Renné, C., Maronde, E., Koch, M., Grabiec, U., Kallendrusch, S., Rengstl, B., Newrzela, S., Hartmann, S., Hansmann, M.L., and Dehghani, F. (2013). Expression and Functional Relevance of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 in Hodgkin Lymphoma. PLoS ONE, 8(12), e81675. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857220/?report=reader.
- Blázquez, C., Casanova, M.L., Planas, A., Gómez Del Pulgar, T., Villanueva, C., Fernández-Aceñero, M.J., Aragonés, J., Huffman, J.W., Jorcano, J.L., Guzmán, M. (2003, March). Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. FASEB Journal, 17(3), 529-31. Retrieved from http://www.fasebj.org/content/early/2003/03/02/fj.02-0795fje.long.
- Blazquez, C., Gonzalez-Feria, L., Alvarez, L., Haro, A., Casanova, M.L., and Guzman, M. (2004, August 15). Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in gliomas. Cancer Research, 64(16), 5617-23. Retrieved from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/64/16/5617.long.
- Blázquez, C., Carracedo, A., Barrado, L., Real, P.J., Fernández-Lun, J.L., Velasco, G., Malumbres, M., and Guzmán, M. (2006, December) Cannabinoid receptors as novel targets for the treatment of melanoma. FASEB Journal, 20(14), 2633-5. Retrieved from http://www.fasebj.org/content/20/14/2633.long.
- Brisbois, T.D., de Kock, I.H., Watanabe, S.M., Mirhosseini, M., Lamoureux, D.C., Chasen, M., MacDonald, N., Baracos, V.E., and Wismer, W.V. (2011, February 22). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized-double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Annals of Oncology, 22, 2086-2093. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/annonc/article/22/9/2086/211788/Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-may-palliate-altered.
- Caffarel, M. M., Andradas, C., Mira, E., Pérez-Gómez, E., Cerutti, C., Moreno-Bueno, G., Flores, J.M., Garcia-Real, I., Palacios, J., Manes, S., Guzman, M., and Sánchez, C. (2010). Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition. Molecular Cancer, 9, 196. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917429/.
- Carracedo, A., Lorente, M., Egia, A., Blázquez, C., García, S., Giroux, V., Malicet, C., Villuendas, R., Gironella, M., González-Feria, L., Piris, M.A., Iovanna, J.L., Guzmán, M., Velasco, G. (2006, April). The stress-regulated protein p8 mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Cancer Cell, 9(4), 301-12. Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/cancer-cell/fulltext/S1535-6108(06)00085-7.
- Casanova, M.L., Blázquez, C., Martínez-Palacio, J., Villanueva, C., Fernández-Aceñero, M.J., Huffman, J.W., Jorcano, J.L., and Guzmán, M. (2003). Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(1), 43–50. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151833/.
- Cudaback, E., Marrs, W., Moeller, T., and Stella, N. (2010). The Expression Level of CB1 and CB2 Receptors Determines Their Efficacy at Inducing Apoptosis in Astrocytomas. PLoS ONE, 5(1), e8702. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2806825/.
- De Petrocellis, L., Melck, D., Palmisano, A., Bisogno, T., Laezza, C., Bifulco, M., and Di Marzo, V. (1998). The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(14), 8375–8380. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20983/.
- Estimated Number of New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, US, 2015. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@editorial/documents/document/acspc-044514.pdf.
- Galve-Roperh, I., Sanchez, C., Cortes, M.L., Gomez del Pulgar, T., Izquiero, M., and Guzman, M. (2000, March). Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: Involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Nature Medicine, 6(3), 313-9. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v6/n3/full/nm0300_313.html.
- Glodde, N., Jakobs, M., Bald, T., Tuting, T., and Gaffal, E. (2015, October 1). Differential role of cannabinoids in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Life Sciences, 138, 35-40. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320515002209.
- Gómez Del Pulgar, T., De Ceballos, M.L., Guzmán, M., and Velasco, G. (2002, September). Cannabinoids Protect Astrocytes from Ceramide-induced Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Pathway. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277(30), 36527-33. Retrieved from http://www.jbc.org/content/277/39/36527.long.
- Gustafsson, K., Christensson, B., Sander, B., and Fiygare, J. (2006, November). Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by R(+)-Methanandamide and Win55,212-2 Is Associated with Ceramide Accumulation and p38 Activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma. Molecular Pharmacology, 70(5), 1612-20. Retrieved from http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/70/5/1612.long.
- Gustafsson, K., Wang, X., Severa, D., Eriksson, M., Kimby, E., Merup, M., Christensson, B., Flygare, J., and Sander, B. (2008, September 1). Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: growth inhibition by receptor activation. International Journal of Cancer, 123(5), 1025-33. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.23584/full.
- Gustafsson, K., Sander, B., Bielawski, J., Hannun, Y.A., and Flygare, J. (2009). Potentiation of cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity in Mantle Cell Lymphoma through modulation of ceramide metabolism. Molecular Cancer Research : MCR, 7(7), 1086–1098. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077284/.
- Guzmán, M., Duarte, M.J., Blázquez, C., Ravina, J., Rosa, M.C., Galve-Roperh, I., Sanchez, C., Velasco, G., and González-Feria, L. (2006). A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. British Journal of Cancer, 95(2), 197–203. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2360617/.
- Guzmán, M., Galve-Roperh, I., and Sánchez, C. (2001, January). Ceramide: a new second messenger of cannabinoid action. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 22(1), 19-22. Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/trends/pharmacological-sciences/fulltext/S0165-6147(00)01586-8.
- Hamtiaux, L., Hansoulle, L., Dauguet, N., Muccioli, G.G., Gallez, B., and Lambert, D.M. (2011). Increasing Antiproliferative Properties of Endocannabinoids in N1E-115 Neuroblastoma Cells through Inhibition of Their Metabolism. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26823. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203169/.
- Hashibe, M., Morgenstern, H., Cui, Y., Tashkin, D.P., Zhang, Z.F., Cozen, W., Mack, T.M., and Greenland, S. (2006, October). Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology: Biomarkers & Prevention, 15(10), 1829-34. Retrieved from http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/15/10/1829.long.
- Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, D., Gil-Alegre, M.E., Ligresti, A., del Rosario Aberturas, M., Molpeceres, J., Torres, A.I., and Di Marzo, V. (2013). Preparation and characterisation of biodegradable microparticles filled with THC and their antitumor efficacy on cancer cell lines. Journal of Drug Targeting, early online, 1-9. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/1061186X.2013.809089?needAccess=true.
- Herrera, B., Carracedo, A., Diez-Zaera, M., Gomez del Pulgar, T., Guzman, M., and Velasco, G. (2006, July 1). The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Experimental Cell Research, 312(11), 2121-31. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014482706001066.
- Islam, T.C., Asplund, A.C., Lindvall, J.M., Nygren, L., Liden, J., Kimby, E., Christensson, B., Smith, C.I., Sander B. (2003, September). High level of cannabinoid receptor 1, absence of regulator of G protein signalling 13 and differential expression of Cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma. Leukemia, 17(9), 1880-90. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/leu/journal/v17/n9/full/2403057a.html.
- Jatoi, A., Windschitl, H.E., Loprinzi, C.L., Sloan, J.A., Dakhil, S.R., Mailliard, J.A., Pundaleeka, S., Kardinal, C.G., Fitch, T.R., Krook, J.E., Novotny, P.J. and Christensen, B. (2002). Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20(2), 567-73. Retrieved from http://ascopubs.org/doi/full/10.1200/JCO.2002.20.2.567.
- Lakiotaki, E., Giaginis, C., Tolia, M., Alexandrou, P., Delladetsima, I., Giannopoulou, I., Kyrgias, G. Patsouris, E.., and Theocharis, S. (2015). Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions. BioMed Research International, 2015, 839403. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619873/.
- Limebeer, C.L., and Parker, L.A. (1999, December 16). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol interferes with the establishment and the expression of conditioned rejection reactions produced by cyclophosphamide: a rat model of nausea. Neuroreport, 10(19), 3769-72. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/neuroreport/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1999&issue=12160&article=00009&type=abstract.
- Machado Rocha, F.C., Stefano, S.C., De Cassia Haiek, R., Rosa Oliveira, L.M., and Da Silveira, D.X. (2008, September). Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cancer Care, 17(5), 431-43. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2354.2008.00917.x/full.
- McAllister S.D., Chan, C., Taft, R.J., Luu, T., Abood, M.E., Moore, D.H., Aldape, K., and Yount, G. (2005, August). Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Journal of Neuro-oncology, 74(1), 31-40. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11060-004-5950-2.
- McKallip, R.J., Lombard, C., Fisher, M., Martin, B.R., Ryu, S., Grant, S., Nagarkatti, P.S., and Nagarkatti, M. (2002, July 15). Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease. Blood, 100(2), 627-34. Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/100/2/627.long?sso-checked=true.
- Montalbano, R., Honrath, B., Wissniowski, T. T., Elxnat, M., Roth, S., Ocker, M., Quint, K., Churin, Y, Roederfeld, M., Schroeder, D., Glebe, D., Roeb, E., and Fazio, P. D. (2016). Exogenous hepatitis B virus envelope proteins induce endoplasmic reticulum stress: involvement of cannabinoid axis in liver cancer cells. Oncotarget, 7(15), 20312–20323. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991457/.
- Moreno, E., Andradas, C., Medrano, M., Caffarel, M. M., Pérez-Gómez, E., Blasco-Benito, S., Gómez-Cañas, M., Pazos, M.R., Irving, A.J., Lluís, C., Canela, E.I., Fernández-Ruiz, J., Guzmán, M., McCormick, P.J., Sánchez, C. (2014). Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(32), 21960–21972. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139213/.
- Nakajima, J., Nakae, D., and Yasukawa, K. (2013, August). Structure-dependent inhibitory effects of synthetic cannabinoids against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and skin tumour promotion in mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 65(8), 1223-1230. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/jphp.12082/full.
- National Toxicology Program. (1996, November). NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1-Trans-Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (CAS No. 1972-08-3) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series, 446, 1-317. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr400499/abstracts/tr446/index.html.
- Niu, F., Zhao, S., Xu, C.Y., Sha, H., Bi, G.B., Chen, L., Ye, L., Gong, P., and Nie, T.H. (2015). Potentiation of the antitumor activity of adriamycin against osteosarcoma by cannabinoid WIN-55,212-2. Oncology Letters, 10(4), 2415–2421. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580018/.
- Oesch, S., Walter ,D., Wachtel, M., Pretre, K., Salazar, M., Guzmán, M., Velasco, G., and Schäfer, B.W. (2009, July). Cannabinoid receptor 1 is a potential drug target for treatment of translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. Molecular Cancer Therapy, 8(7), 1838-45. Retrieved from http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/8/7/1838.long.
- Orellana-Serradell, O., Poblete, C.E., Sanchez, C., Castellon, E.A., Gallegos, I., Huidobro, C., Llanos, M.N., and Contreras, H.R. (2015, April). Proapoptotic effect of endocannabinoids in prostate cancer cells. Oncology Reports, 33(4), 1599-608. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358087/.
- Pisanti, S., Borselli, C., Oliviero, O., Laezza, C., Gazzerro, P., Bifulco, M. (2007, May). Antiangiogenic activity of the endocannabinoid anandamide: Correlation to its tumor-suppressor efficacy. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 211(2), 495-503. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/jcp.20954/full.
- Preet, A., Ganju, R.K.., and Groopman, J.E. (2008, January). Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo. Oncogene, 27(3), 339-46. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v27/n3/full/1210641a.html.
- Qamri, Z., Preet, A., Nasser, M.W., Bass, C.E., Leone, G., Barsky, S.H., and Ganju, R.K. (2009). Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 8(11), 3117–3129. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4128286/.
- Ramer, R., and Hinz, B. (2008, January). Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(1), 59-69. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/djm268.
- Ramos, J.A., and Bianco, F.J. (2012). The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: cBasic science perspective and potential clinical applications. Indian Journal of Urology : IJU : Journal of the Urological Society of India, 28(1), 9–14. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751914/.
- Salazar, M., Carracedo, A., Salanueva, Í.J., Hernández-Tiedra, S., Lorente, M., Egia, A., Vazquez, P., Blazquez, C., Torres, S., Garcia, S., Nowak, J., Fimia, G.M., Piacentini, M., Cecconi, F., Pandolfi, P.P., Gonzalez-Feria, L., Iovanna, J.L., Guzman, M., Boya, P., and Velasco, G. (2009). Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(5), 1359–1372. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673842/.
- Sallan, S.E., Zinberg, N.E., and Frei, E. (1975, October 16). Antiemetic Effect of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 293(16), 795-7. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM197510162931603.
- Sanchez, C., de Ceballos, M.L., Gomez del Pulgar, T., Rueda, D., Corbacho, C. Velasco, G., Galve-Roperh, I., Huffman, J.W., Ramon y Cajal, S., and Guzman, M. (2001, August 1). Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer Research, 61(15), 5784-9. Retrieved from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/61/15/5784.long
- Thomas, A.A., Wallner, L.P., Quinn, V.P., Slezak, J., Van Den Eeden, S.K., Chien, G.W., and Jacobsen, S.J. (2015, February). Association between cannabis use and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the California Men’s Health Study. Urology, 85(2), doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2014.08.060. Epub 2014 Nov 1. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429514012060.
- Van Dross, R., Soliman, E., Jha, S., Johnson, T., and Mukhopadhyay, S. (2013). Receptor-dependent and Receptor-independent Endocannabinoid Signaling: A Therapeutic Target for Regulation of Cancer Growth. Life Sciences, 92(0), 463–466. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4226396/.
- Vara, D., Salazar, M., Olea-Herrero, N., Guzmán, M., Velasco, G., and Díaz-Laviada, I. (2011). Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma: role of AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy. Cell Death and Differentiation, 18(7), 1099–1111. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131949/.
- Vara, D., Morell, C., Rodríguez-Henche, N., and Diaz-Laviada, I. (2013). Involvement of PPARγ in the antitumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell Death & Disease, 4(5), e618–. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674350/.
- Velasco, G., Galve-Roperh, I., Sánchez, C., Blázquez, C., Haro, A., and Guzmán, M. (2005, August 19). Cannabinoids and ceramide: two lipids acting hand-by-hand. Life Sciences, 77(14), 1723-31. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320505005035
- Wang, D., Wang, H., Ning, W., Backlund, M.G., Dey, S.K., and DuBois, R.N. (2008). Loss of cannabinoid receptor 1 accelerates intestinal tumor growth. Cancer Research, 68(15), 6468–6476. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2561258/.
- What Is Cancer? (2015, April 15). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/what-is-cancer.
- What Is Cancer? (2015, February 9). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/what-is-cancer.
- Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B., Sakai, S., and Donaghe, H. (2013, February). Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. The Journal of Pain, 14(2), 136-48. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566631/.
- Xian, X.S., Park, H., Choi, M.G., and Park, J.M (2013, June) Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist as an Alternative Drug in 5-Fluorouracil-resistant Gastric Cancer Cells. Anticancer Research, 33(6), 2541-7. Retrieved from http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/33/6/2541.long.
- Xie, C., Liu, G., Liu, J., Huang, Z., Wang, F., Lei, X., Wu, X., Huang, S., Zhong, D., and XU, X. (2012). Anti-proliferative effects of anandamide in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Oncology Letters, 4(3), 403–407. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3439105/.
- Zhang, J., Medina-Cleghorn, D., Bernal-Mizrachi, L., Bracci, P.M., Hubbard, A., Conde, L., Riby, J., Nomura, D.K., and Skibola, C. F. (2016). The potential relevance of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Oncoscience, 3(1), 31–41. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751914/.